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HAZARAT NIZAMUDDIN AULIYA

Posted on : January 20, 2020

 Sultan-ul-Mashaikh, Mehboob-e-Ilahi, Hazrat Shaikh Khwaja Syed Muhammad Nizamuddin Auliya (1238 - 3 April 1325) (Urdu: ???? ??? ????? ???? ???? ???? ?????? ??????), also known as Hazrat Nizamuddin, was a famousSufi saint of the Chishti Order in the Indian Subcontinent, an order that believed in drawing close to God through renunciation of the world and service to humanity. He is one of the great saints of the Chishti order in India.[1] His predecessors were Moinuddin Chishti, Bakhtiyar Kakiand Fariduddin Ganjshakar. In that sequence, they constitute the initial spiritual chain or silsila of the Chisti order, which is widely prevalent in India and Pakistan. Nizamuddin Auliya, like his predecessors, stressed upon the element of love as a means of realisation of God. For him his love of God implied a love of humanity. His vision of the world was marked by a highly evolved sense of secularity and kindness.[2] It is claimed by the 14th century historiographer Ziauddin Barani that his influence on the Muslims of Delhi was such that a paradigm shift was effected in their outlook towards worldly matters. People began to be inclined towards mysticism and prayers and remaining aloof from the world.[3][edit]Life Nizamuddin Auliya was born in Badayun, Uttar Pradesh(east of Delhi). At the age of five, after the death of his father, Ahmad Badayuni, he came to Delhi with his mother, Bibi Zulekha.[4] His biography finds mention in Ain-i-Akbari, a 16th century document written by Mughal Emperor Akbar’s vizier, A- bu'l-Fazl ibn Mubarak.[5] At the age of twenty, Niz?mudd?n went to Ajodhan (the present Pakpattan Sharif in Pakistan) and became a disciple of the Sufi saint Fariduddin Ganj-i-Shakkar, commonly known as Baba Farid. Niz?mudd?n did not take up residence in Ajodhan but continued with his theological studies in Delhi while simultaneously starting the Sufi devotional practices and the prescribed litanies. He visited Ajodhan each year to spend the month of Ramadan in the presence of Baba Farid. It was on his third visit to Ajodhan that Baba Farid made him his successor. Shortly after that, when Niz?mudd?n returned to Delhi, he received news that Baba Farid had expired.   Niz?mudd?n lived at various places in Delhi, before finally settling down in Ghiyaspur, a neighborhood in Delhi undisturbed by the noise and hustle of city life. He built hisKhanqah here, a place where people from all walks of life were fed, where he imparted spiritual education to others and he had his own quarters. Before long, the khanqahbecame a place thronged with all kinds of people, rich and poor alike. Many of his disciples achieved spiritual height, includingShaikh Nasiruddin Muhammad Chirag-e-Delhi,[6] and Amir Khusro,[5] noted scholar/musician, and the royal poet of theDelhi Sultanate. He died on the morning of 3 April 1325. His shrine, the Niz?mudd?n Derg?h is located in Delhi,[7] and the present structure was built in 1562. The shrine is visited by people of all faiths, through the year, though it becomes a place for special congregation during the death anniversaries, or 'Urs, of Niz?mudd?n Auliy?' and Am?r Khusro,[4] who is also buried at the Niz?mudd?n Darg?h. [edit]Key beliefs Besides believing in the traditional Sufi ideas of embracing God within this life (as opposed to the idea that such partial merger with God is possible only after death), by destroying the ego and cleansing the soul, and that this is possible through considerable efforts involving Sufi practices, Nizamuddin also expanded and practised the unique features introduced by past saints of the Chisti Sufi order in India. These included: Emphasis on renunciation and having complete trust in God. The unity of mankind and shunning distinctions based on social, economic, religious status. Helping the needy, feeding the hungry and being sympathetic to the oppressed. Strong disapproval of mixing with the Sultans, the princes and the nobles. Exhortation in making close contact with the poor and the downtrodden Adopting an uncompromising attitude towards all forms of political and social oppression. A bold stance in favour of Sema, which some considered unislamic. Perhaps this was with the view that this was in consonance with the role of music in some modes of Hindu worship, could serve as a basis of contact with local people and would facilitate mutual adjustments between the two communities.[8] In fact Qawwali, a form of devotional music, was originally created by one his most cherished disciples: Amir Khusro. Nizamuddin did not much bother about the theoretical aspects of Sufism, believing rather that it were the practical aspects that counted, as it was anyway not possible to describe the diversified mystical experiences called spiritual states or stations which a practicing Sufi encountered. He discouraged the demonstration of Keramat and emphasized that it was obligatory for the Auliya (which roughly means the friends of God) to hide the ability of Keramat from the commoners. He also was quite generous in accepting disciples. Usually whoever came to him saying that he wanted to become a disciple was granted that favour. This resulted in him being always surrounded by people from all strata of society. [edit]Ancestral history The eldest son of 'Al? al-Naq? was ?asan al-'Askar? and the other son was Ja'far Bukh?r?. After the death of 'Ali al-Naqi, Hasan al-Askari became the accepted Im?m of both Sh?'ah and Sunn? Muslims. ?asan al-'Askar? was killed at the age of 28. He had one son, Mu?ammad al-Mahd?, who, at the age of five after the death of his father, disappeared from public view. That was in the time of the 'Abb?sidCaliphs. Knowing about the killings of all the Im?ms and family members of the descendants of Mu?ammad, Ja'far Bukh?r? migrated to Bukhara in Uzbekistan[ci- tation needed]. After a few generations, one of his descendants called 'Al?, known as D?niy?l, the grandfather of Niz?mudd?n Auliy?', migrated to the city of Bad?y?n in Uttar Pradesh, India. [edit]Ancestral lineage Mu?ammad 'Al? bin Ab? ??lib Husayn bin 'Al? 'Al? bin al-Husayn Zayn-ul'?bid?n Mu?ammad al-B?qir Ja'far al-??diq M?s? al-K??him 'Al? al-Ri?? Mu?ammad al-Taq? 'Al? al-Naq? Ja'far Bukh?r? 'Al? A?ghar Bukh?r? Ab? 'Abdull?h Bukh?r? A?mad Bukh?r? 'Al? Bukh?r? Husayn Bukh?r? 'Abdull?h Bukh?r? 'Al? , known as D?niy?l A?mad Bad?y?n? Niz?mudd?n Auliy?' Spiritual lineage Islamic Prophet Mu?ammad 'Al? bin Ab? ??lib al-?asan al-Ba?r? 'Abdul W??id Bin Zaid Abul Fa?l Fu?ail Bin 'Iyy?dh Bin Mas'?d Bin Bishr al-Tam?m? Ibr?h?m bin Adham Hudhaifah al-Mar'ash? Abu Hubairah Basri Mumshad 'Uluw al-Dinawar? Start of the Chishti Order: Ab? Is??q al-Sh?m? Ab? A?mad Abd?l Ab? Mu?ammad bin Ab? A?mad Ab? Y?suf bin S?m?n Maud?d Chisht? Shar?f Zand?n? Usm?n al-H?r?n? Mu'?nudd?n Chisht? Qu?budd?n Bakhtiy?r K?k? Far?dudd?n Mas'?d Niz?mudd?n Auliy?' [edit]His students He had more than 600 khalifas (a khalifa is a disciple who is given the authority to take his own disciples and thus propagate the spiritual lineage) who continued his lineage all over the world. Some of his most famous disciples are: [edit]Nasiruddin Chiragh Dehlavi He was the spiritual successor of Nizamuddin Auliya. He is considered fifth amongst the big five of theChisti order in India (the others being Moinuddin Chishti, Qutbuddin Bakhtiar Kaki, Fariduddin Ganjshakar, Nizamuddin Auliya in that order). His shrine is in Chirag Dilli, New Delhi, India. [edit]Am?r Khusro He was the most loved disciple of his master. He was so close to his master that once Niz?mudd?n Auliy?' said, "If shar?'ah allows me I would like him to be buried with me in the same grave."[citation needed] He also said that whoever comes to visit his grave must visit the grave of Am?r Khusro first and then his. He died within a few months of his master's death. He was buried at the feet of his master. His shrine is in Niz?mudd?n Darg?h, New Delhi. [edit]Aqi Seraj He was given the title of ?'inah-e-Hind (Mirror of India) by Niz?mudd?n Auliy?' and lived with him for a long time. He was amongst the earliest disciples of Niz?mudd?n Auliy?', who sent him to Bengal. His shrine is in Gaur, West Bengal. [edit]Burhanuddin Gharib He is also amongst the earliest disciples of Nizamuddin Auliya and lived with the master until his last breath. After the death of Nizamuddin Auliya, he went to the Deccan, and the place where he lived became famous thereby. His shrine is in Khuldabad in Maharashtra. [edit]Jalaluddin Bhandari He is also amongest the earliest disciples of Nizamuddin Auliya. He ran the Langar khana of Nizamuddin Auliya. After the death of Nizamuddin Auliya, he went to the Deccan with Burhanuddin Gharib, and became famous by the name of Bhandari. His shrine is in Fatehabad in the Aurangabad district of Maharashtra. [edit]Syed Mahmood Kashkinakar He holds a very special position in Islamic mysticism. He is believed to be alive in the invisible world even after his death in the visible world. There are miracles in the literature of the Chisti order which are attributed to this. [edit]Ajan Fakir [edit]Syed Ahmed Badepaa His tomb is in First Lancer. On the order of his Peer, he left everything in Delhi and moved to the Deccan to propagate Deen Islam along with the famous Syed Burhanuddin. [edit]Quotations The wilayat (domain) of gnosis and faith can suffer decay. The wilayat of compassion can not. The love of Auliya (saints) is stronger than their reason. The lock of spiritual perfection has very many keys. All those keys are to be possessed. If one does not open it, others can. He who has knowledge, reason, and love, is deserving to become a caliph of the Sufi sheikhs. So long as is possible, give relief to your heart, because the heart of a good Muslim is the palace of the manifestations of Allah. [edit]His descendants Nizamuddin Auliya did not marry. However he had one brother named Jamaluddin. He told him, "your descendants will be my descendants". Jamaluddin had one son named Ibrahim. He was nurtured by Nizamuddin Auliya after Jamaluddin's death. Nizamuddin Auliya sent his nephew to Bengal in EasternIndia along with one of his most famous disciples (khalifa) Aqi Seraj, famously known as Aaina-e-Hind. Ala-ul-Haq Pandwi (the master (Pir) of Maqdoom Ashraf Jehangir Simnani), one of the most famousSufis of the Chisti order, became his disciple and khalifa. Ala-ul-Haq Pandwi married his sister-in-law to Ibrahim. They had one son, who was the most famous Chisti Sufi of Biha- r, known as Fariduddin Tavaela Bukhsh. He was married to the daughter of Ala-ul-Haq Pandwi. He became the khalifa of Hazrat Noor Qutb-e-Aalam Padwi (the eldest son and spiritual successor of Ala-ul-Haq Pandwi). Hisshrine is one of the most famous shrines in Chandpura, Bihar Sharif, Bihar. Many of his descendants are very famous Sufis, namely Moinuddin Sani, Naseeruddin Sani, Sultan Chisti Nizami, Bahauddin Chisti Nizami, Deewan Syed Shah Abdul Wahab (his shrine is in Choti Takiya, Biharsharif), Sultan Sani, Amjad Hussain Chisti Nizami, among others. He spread Chisti Nizami order all over Northern India. Ijaza of his Silsila (order) is present in all the existing khanqahs of Bihar. His descendants still reside in Biharsharif and can be found in many parts of the world. However, those still looking after Nizamuddin Auliya's shrine in Delhi are the descendants of his sister's son. [edit]The Chisti Nizami order Main article: Chishti Order Nizamuddin Auliya was the founder of the Chisti Nizami order. He had hundreds of disciples (khalifa) who had Ijaza (khilafat) from him to spread the order. Many of the sufis of the Chisti Nizami order are recognised as great sufis; the following is a list of notable sufis of the Chisti Nizami order, which includes his descendants as well as his disciples: Muhammad Hussaini Gisudaraz Bandanawaz, Gulbarga (near - Hyderabad), Karnataka; Ala-ul-Haq Pandwi & Noor Qutb-e-Alam Pandwi, Pandua, West Bengal; Makhdoom Ashraf Jahangir Simnani, Kachaocha, Uttar Pradesh; Faqruddin Faqr Dehlvi, Mehrauli, New Delhi; Shah Niyaz Ahmad Barelvi ,Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh; Shafruddin Ali Ahmed & Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed, Chirag Dilli, New Delhi; Zainuddin Shirazi, Burhanpur, Madhya Pradesh; Muhiuddin Yousuf Yahya Madani Chishti, Medina; Kaleemullah Dehlvi Chishti, Delhi; Nizamuddin Aurangabadi; Nizamuddin Hussain, and Meerza Agha Mohammad; Muhammad Sulman Taunswi, Pakistan, Mohammad Meera Hussaini, Hesamuddin Mankpuri. [edit]Famous Branches Nizamuddin Auliya was an unparalleled sufi of his time amongst all the existing sufi orders of that time. Many of his contemporaries were doubtless very powerful spiritual leaders, but he was the most famous of all. In his career of approximately 70 years as a sufi he saw the reign of seven rulers of the Delhi sultanate. The kings were very loyal to him and respectful of him. When he first arrived as the Qutb of Delhi he settled down at a lonely place on the outskirts of Delhi, Ghyaspur. But he became so famous that Ghyaspur became the main hub of Delhi and so densely populated that he wanted to leave that place but did not. He was buried in the campus of his khanqah. Ghyaspur is now a central locality of New Delhi, and is known after his name Nizamuddin. The area is so vast that it is divided into four parts: Nizamuddin Dargah (where his shrine is situated), Nizamuddin East, Nizamuddin West and Hazrat Nizamuddin Railway Station. [edit]The branches The Chisti order branched out with Nizamuddin Auliya to form the Chisti Nizami order. A parallel branch which started with Alauddin Sabir Kaliyari, another disciple of Baba Farid, was the Chisti Sabiri branch. People started adding Nizami gracefully after their name. He spiritually made many great sufis amongst his students, descendants and the sufis of the Nizami order. The branches of the Chisti Nizami order are as follows: [edit]Naseeria His disciple Nasiruddin Muhammad Chirag-e-Dehli started the Nizamia Naseeria branch. [edit]Hussain- ia The Hussainia branch is named for Muhammad Hussaini Gisudaraz Bandanawaz. He was the most famous and loved disciple of Nasiruddin Muhammad Chirag-e-Dehli. The khanqah he established in Gulbarga, Karnataka is still in existence. [edit]Niyazia Shah Niyaz Ahmad Barelvi, in the 19th century started the Niyazia branch. [edit]Ser- ajia The Nizamia Serajia branch was started by Serajuddin Aqi Seraj. This branch is also known asChistia Serajia. [edit]Ashrafia The Qad- ria Chishtia Nizamia Ashrafia branch was started by Hazrat Meer Auhaduddin Sultan Sayed Makhdoom Ashraf Jahangir Simnani(????? ???? ????), the most famous sufi saint of Uttar Pradesh. He established a khanqah, still in existence at Kachaucha, Uttar Pradesh, India. [edit]Faridia The Chisti- a Serajia Faridia order was started by Fariduddin Tavaelabukhsh, a descendant of Nizamuddin Auliya and a sufi of the Serajia branch of the Chisti order. This branch is also known asNizamia Serajia Faridia. [edit]King's disrespect leads to his own doom One of the kings of the Delhi sultanate during Nizamuddin Auliya lifetime was Qutb-ud-din Mubarak Shah, the last ruler of the Khilji dynasty. Legend has it that disrespect of Nizamuddin Auliya caused the king's death. Qutb-ud-din Mubarak Shah used to assemble all the leading figures and famous personalities of Delhi in his court every weekend. Once a courtier complained to him that Nizamuudin Auliya never came to the court. The King declared, "Order him in my name to come to my weekend gathering, else he will be hanged." When Nizamuddin Auliya's disciple, Amir Khusrau, related this to his master, he ignored the message, and did not even answer. As the weekend approached, his disciples became concerned for his life. On the day before the weekend, Nizamuddin Auliya went to the grave of his mother and came back looking unperturbed, telling his disciples to go home and sleep as usual. The next morning, everyone was very tense and worried, but Nizamuddin Auliya remained unperturbed. Shortly, news came that there had been a rebellion in the palace, and the king had been brutally killed. [edit]Titles given to Nizamuddin Aulia Mehboob-e-elahi (Beloved of God) Sultan-ul-Mashaiq Dastageer-e-Do Jahan (Holder of Two Worlds) Jag Ujyare Qutb-e-Dehli (Tower of Dehli) [edit]Urs The Urs (death anniversary) of Nizamuddin Auliya is celebrated at the Nizamuddin Dargah on the 17th of Rabi II (Rabi-ul-Aaqir), and that of Amir Khusro on the 18th of Shawwal. [edit]In popular culture Arziyan, a qawwali in the film Delhi 6 (2009) composed by A. R. Rahman is dedicated to Nizamuddin Auliya. Kun Faya Kun a song in the movie Rockstar is also dedicated to him .                                                                          SHARING THIS BLOG